Study area on Ecobiology of Gray Goral (Naemorhedus goral) with reference to Pakistan
The Himalayan grey goral (Naemorhedus goral, order: Artiodactyla, sub-order: Ruminantia, family: Bovidae) is endemic to Himalayas and Hindukush ranges. The present study has been instituted to study the eco-biology of the species with reference to its distribution range extending into Pakistan with the aim of providing a base line date on population distribution and status.
The Phytosociological studies on the habitat suggest the presence of at least 99 species of endospermic plants, distributed with a low constancy of appearance with three well defined vegetation layers, i.e. tree (22 species), shrub (25), herbs (31) and grasses (21). Pinus roxburghii is the most widely distributed species. Eight vegetation communities have been identified using TWINSPAN ordination, which are distributed in different parts of the available goral habitat.
The population data collected from 98 stands through variable transects technique suggests that the species is distributed over some 4,839 km2 of the potential area with an overall density of 0.15±0.02 heads/km2. The major part of this population (around 200) is present in Azad Kashmir. The male: female sex ratio (1:1.92) suggests the preponderance of the females. There are on the average 0.31 sub-adult per adult female (0.50 in February –March, falling to 0.11-0.17 in November-December). The mean herd size is 1.72± 0.11 (summer=1.91±0.16 winter 1.38±0.10). The species is basically solitary through the individuals may aggregate into small groups. Different vegetation communities hold variable goral densities, depending upon available physico-biotic conditions. The herb and shrub cover has a positive association; while tree cover has a negative association with goral density. The goral population is present at altitude of 800-2,200 m above sea level during winter, and tends to move to 1400-2600 m as. during summer.
The faecal pellet analysis and field observations suggest that goral consumes a minimum of 28 plant species; herb, shrub, and trees appearing in the ratio of 1:36:63. The species mainly subsets on six species of grasses (Chrysopogon aucheri, Themeda anathera, Poa pratensis, Digitaria decemnens, Apluda mutica, Aristida cyanatha), though leaves of the shrubs (Rubus ellpticus, Ipomoea hispida, Carisa opaca, Dodenaea viscose, Buxus sempervirens, Mimose rubicaulis, M. africana) are preferred to different degrees. The food plants provide 77.85±2.56% water, 8.55±0.38% ash, 6.77±0.06% carbohydrates, 5.5%±0.25% protein and 1.28±0.08% fats. The food provides 4.440 kcal of energy and 5.45 l of water per day to the adult goral.
The behavioral studies conducted on goral maintained in semi-captive conditions suggest that the sub-adult spends 33.48%, 12.22%, 20.24%, 22.16% and 7.92% of time while sleeping, ruminating, resting, feeding and agnostic activities, respectively. The adults spend 24.88%, 26.48%, 14.09%, 8.06% and 13.42% of the time on such activities. The species spends major part of the night while sleeping, has a crepuscular feeding behavior and goes for the day time rest during the hotter parts of the day. The limited field observations showed that the gorals remain vigilant to environmental changes while feeding, ruminating and resting. The species also prefers to go for drinking from a source of running water rather than from that of stagnant water. Gorals mainly depends upon camouflaging and threat behavior for its defense.
The analysis of the species biology suggests that it has a vulnerable status as per IUCN criteria, having a fragmented population of less than 1,000 individuals. The goral, as a species has full potentials of its survival under the available habitat conditions. The future management would require protection to fawns in the protected areas, creation of habitat corridors, international cooperation to provide support to the population surviving in Indian part of the distribution range of the species, habitat management and arousing public cooperation through awareness campaign.
A study area on Ecobiology of Gray Goral (Naemorhedus goral)
Food and feeding preferences of Himalayan gray goral (Naemorhedus goral bedfordi) in Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Himalayan gray goral is endemic to Himalayas and Hindukush ranges. Analysis of 15 fecal samples and field observations from different areas of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir suggest that goral consumes foliage of a minimum of 28 plant species. Trees, shrubs and grasses appear in the ratio of 1:36:63 and hence the species is a grazer, though may opt for browsing when forced. The species mainly subsists on six species of grasses (Chrysopogon aucheri=17.97%, Themeda anathera=13.03%, Poa pratensis=11.23%, Digitaria decumbens=9.30%, Apluda mutica=7.51%, Aristida cyanatha=3.15%), though leaves of shrubs (Myrsine africana=11.38%, Daphne oleoides=8.87%, Carissa opaca=5.94%, Dodonaea viscose=4.79%, Rubus ellipticus=2.93%, Gymnosporia royleana=1.29%) are also consumed. Food preference indices (consumed/availability) suggest that grasses are highly preferred (16.86 times of availability), followed by shrubs (3.3 times of availability), whereas trees and herbs are not preferred. Food plants contain water (77.9±0.56%), ash (8.6±0.38%), sugars (6.8±0.16%), proteins (5.6%±0.28%) and fats (1.3±0.08%). Food provides 4,440 kcal of energy and 5.45 L of water/day/adult goral, which is sufficient to meet the requirements of the species. Grasses need to be ensured in the protected area separated for management of goral population. Zoo Biol 0:1-10, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc
Probability of population extinction of GREY GORAL Naemorhedus goral bedfordi in Pakistan by 2058
Grey goral documented probability population extinction by 2058