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Estimation of Physio-chemical Parameters with reference to total biomass of wetlands in Potohar lakes

 ABSTRACT

Water chemistry directly effect total biological activity of water body and plays vital role in limn logical factors. This study is designed to estimate the physico-chemical parameters which include temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Dissolved Oxygen, free Carbon dioxide, alkalinity and hardness of wetlands in Potohar regions i.e. Rawal Dam, Simly Dam and Khanpur Dam. The area is chosen because Potohar is an arid zone so this land possesses more natural water bodies than any ecological zone of Pakistan. 
The study was conducted to estimate the physico-chemical parameters of wetlands in Potohar Lakes and to correlate these physico-chemical parameters with existing planktons to calculate better productivity environment. The sampling was done by using Nansen bottle from specific depths. 

The transparency of water was measured with the help of secchi disk. Temperature, pH, Total Dissolved Solids and humidity was noted with the help of thermometer, pH meter, T.D.S. meter and hygrometer in the field.Whereas titration tests were performed to check the alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, free CO2 and hardness of water. the variations among the three dams is not so significant, i.e. a slight variation occurs. The amount of D.O. and CO2 were sufficient for aquatic flora and fauna in all the three. Rawal is much more turbid than Khanpur and Simly. Seasonal variation shows that temperature, T.D.S., Organic Particulate and humidity are more in summer as compared to winter. Water was alkaline and pH decreases with increase in temperature. The results shows that the zooplankton were abundant in Rawal dam.


  
Population distribution and ecology of freshwater crab in Potohar region
                                                                  
ABSTRACT
 

This research was conducted in Potohar region. Main objectives were to estimate ecology, population and distribution of freshwater crab. Areas were marked for studying. Random sampling was carried out in those areas. Different physico-chemical parameters were identified. Climatic data was gathered and it was analyzed. For estimating population distribution of crab various samples of the stream were taken. Numbers of catch per unit area of whole stream were calculated. Freshwater crabs per slow moving streams. They do not live in deep water. They utilize holes and cervices beneath boulders as protective retreats. Scavengers wide variety of zooplanktons were observed along with other microorganisms in their habitat. 

They feed on dead fish and other micro fauna. Different optimal physico-chemical and climatic parameters were as follows, PH from 8.5-8.8. Temperature from 14-31ºC. Dissolved oxygen 8.5mg/g. Alkalinity was 210mg/l. Hardness of water ranges from 70-150mg/l. Level of carbon dioxide was 15-24mg/l. Along with Rawal lake10 villages were studies. Total estimated population of freshwater crab was 1183. Percentage of females, males and young crabs as 65%, 24% and 11% respectively. Freshwater crabs were least known to literature. No work has been done on freshwater crab in region. 
These results are first step towards crab biology ever taken in the region. By maintaining optimal conditions in habitat of freshwater crabs, it’s population can be increased. Preventing it from different types of pollutants can do it. Pollution free habitat will help in flourishment of freshwater crabs.




A view of the study area of crabs



Comparative estimation of population density and diversity of zooplankton in fresh water lakes of Potohar region

ABSTRACT


The small organisms inhabiting the water column are called planktons, with the animal component being called zooplankton. Zooplanktons are one of few major components, which directly effect total biological activities of water body. This study was conducted on three dams of Potohar region, which are, Rawal dam, Simply dam, Khanpur dam, samples were taken in two seasons from each dam, once in the summers and other in the winter season. Samples were taken from three sites on each dam, sample A from bank, sample B, from center and sample C, from opposite bank of dam. Sampling was done by hauling plankton net (35 µ mesh size) in water through boat. Samples were collected in bottles and preserved in 4% formalin. The samples were than analyzed in UAAR ecology lab to estimate population diversity and population distribution of zooplankton in each dam. The most extensively occurring group of zooplankton is copepods, cladoceran, Rotifers, and protozons. 

These results give us an estimation of diversity of zooplankton, total No of zooplankton per liter of water in each dam, frequency of different species per liter of water in these dams, and seasonal variation of zooplankton in dam. From these results a comparison will be made while considering the population diversity, population distribution and productivity of water bodies.

Study area of zooplankton population in Potohar lakes
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